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First Nations, Inuit and Métis are names that refer to the three main groups of peoples who are the traditional inhabitants of this land. This section provides available research for innovations that specifically consider these peoples.

The Canadian research that meets the criteria for inclusion in this ToolKit (see Methodology) for innovations in First Nations / Inuit / Métis are included here. The strength of evidence can be explicated by the number of evaluations conducted (more studies for a particular innovation offer a greater understanding of the evidence) and the design of the evaluations available (e.g. RCTs offer causal conclusions where qualitative studies offer exploratory understanding). This ToolKit has summarized the findings by both policy outcomes and outcomes for children. Importantly, many of the Canadian ELCC innovations here have few studies supporting their effectiveness. This should not be mis-interpreted as evidence of ineffectiveness, but a need for further funding for research of Canadian ELCC innovations.


# of Studies

The number of Canadian studies per innovation.

The design of the evaluations available. See Legend.

Study Design

Provinces/Territories where evaluation(s) conducted.

Evaluation Jurisdictions

*click map to enlarge

Y = explicitly includes Indigenous Peoples
N = doesn't explicitly include Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous People Explicitly Included in Studies

A green icon indicates studies have found positive effects; a red icon indicates studies have found negative effects; a black icon indicates these outcomes have been evaluated, but no effect has been found; and no icon indicates these outcomes have not yet been evaluated.

Policy Outcomes

Child Outcomes

Literacy Programs.png


Governance - Positive.png
Access - Positive.png
Learning Environment - Positive.png
Accountability - Positive.png
Physical - Positive.png
Emotional - Positive.png
Social - Positive.png
Language - Positive.png
Cognitive - Positive.png

* 1 study showed no effect


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