Governance examines innovations focused on service system design, policy and/or operations.
The Canadian research that meets the criteria for inclusion in this ToolKit (see Methodology) for innovations in governance are included here. The strength of evidence can be explicated by the number of evaluations conducted (more studies for a particular innovation offer a greater understanding of the evidence) and the design of the evaluations available (e.g. RCTs offer causal conclusions where qualitative studies offer exploratory understanding). This ToolKit has summarized the findings by both policy outcomes and outcomes for children. Importantly, many of the Canadian ELCC innovations here have few studies supporting their effectiveness. This should not be mis-interpreted as evidence of ineffectiveness, but a need for further funding for research of Canadian ELCC innovations.